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Tak Bisa Hidup Tanpamu May 21, 2010

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 3:42 am

Telah habis kata

terangkai untuk membuatmu

Kembali mengingat semua

Apapun janjimu

Aku mohon dengan sangat kepadamu

Waktu bersama dengan mu

tak sebanding dengan

Hancur hatiku begitu

memberkas di hidupku

Aku mohon dengan sangat kepadamu

Reff :   Kembalilah

Wahai sayangku

Hanya itu yag membuat aku     tenang

Kembalilah

Kembali kepadaku

Aku takkan pernah bisa hidup   tanpamu

 

Cara Bikin Es Timun May 20, 2010

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 11:55 pm

EST_IMUN

Bahan     :    timun  3 buah, Es batu, Air

Cara       :

  • Parut timun tetapi bukan dengan parutan kelapa
  • Tuangkan parutan timun pada tiap-tiapa gelas
  • Tambahkan sirup Lemon secukupnya
  • Tambahkan air, aduk dan masukkan es batu
  • Est_imun siap dinikmati

Ukuran   :  10 gelas

 

Description about Internet

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 11:53 pm

MAY WE USE INTERNET ?

Ancient and modern have two meanings that contrast each other. Times do not stop to rotate, so year increases. This more modern era, there are some terrific technology. Starting from its colour, form, and function. They make us to spend our money and then use it to buy those things.

As human, we want to know about everything around us. So, we need all of information about them. Where can you get that information? You can get it from a lot of sources, like magazine, newspaper, television, someone, radio, or the other media. From the sources, Internet is a source that give perfect information quickly.

In this globalization era, Internet has been used by all of age. What is Internet? Internet is global network among computers to communicate from one location to other location in the world. For adult that can’t use Internet facility, they can be called out of date. More over, there are some instances that announce the job vacancy and accept the work application by using Internet.

Generally, the function of internet : supply the network medium that has standard and define the network procedure so the information can exchange each other.

With the intensity of the internet, it can make contravention in the society because now there are many children and adolescents that abuse Internet, so it give bad effect for them. Therefore, in this writing, is hoped that everyone can get more knowledges about the Internet and know the goodness and weakness of the Internet.

If someone do not have computer to access internet, he/she can come to a small shop, that is Internet Small Shop or in Indonesian it is called “warnet (warung internet)” There are many computers there to access internet, and everyone can use it, but they must pay every hour. Usually, the tariff is four thousands until six thousands rupiahs per hour. Now, every one from village until town can try Internet service, and enjoy the benefit. There, they also can print the text, and usually we pay one thousand rupiahs per sheet if it uses black and white colour. If it uses different colour, we can spend our money from one thousand and five hundreds rupiahs until two thousands rupiahs.

Everything in this world have positive side and negative side. And also with Internet that have those sides too. There are two opinions about Internet, Internet as Threat and Internet as Point Plus. Internet as Threat can be called negative side of Internet. Internet as Point Plus can be called positive side of Internet. We will forget with the negative side because we are very enjoyed the Internet. We can’t throw away the negative side of Internet, and always pay attention with the positive effect, because it can damage our selves.

Some adventages of Internet are :

1.        Information Source

With Internet, science world more open for us, information spreading is faster, all of information can be got easily.

2.       Shopping Online

Shopping and buying something, it may be done in Internet because there are many webpages that is directed to this activity. We can choose the product or service that is available and pay it by on-line via credit card and next day, the product or service can come in front of our house door.

3.       News

Now, we don’t need time to wait until next morning to read the news, there are many webpages that supply world up-to-date news and they are always replaced base on news development. The news on webpages can be called complete, from sport news, politic, economy, weather, and the other news. That interested sites like:
http://www.kompas.com, is Official website from Jawa Pos newspaper.
SPN Sportszone (http://espn.sportszone.com) that supply sport news in the world.

4.       Library

Besides that, Internet also supplies Library Online facility from Websites collection from world library. In this site, we can get books that can be read online or offline (after we download it) free of cost, the books from encyclopaedia, novel, etc. One example of website is (http://perpustakan-online.blogspot.com).

5.       Education

One website in Internet that can help us to develop our science and education is website that special on Education Information. Either one website is www.apasich.com. This website is local contain and include all of information, data and statistic that is needed in Science and Education development in our country.

In the education world, Internet can help the student to access all of information, science and sharing research among students, especially with student that have far house.

The students can also finish their homework quickly with Internet, the teachers sometimes use e-mail to collect that homework, so the students do not wait the next day to collect that homework in the class, but they can send it directly to the teacher’s e-mail address after they finish the homework.

6.       Entertainment

With Internet, adult can get interesting entertainment like looking for friends. Now, there are some websites that is liked by adult to intercourse for example Mig33, Facebook or Friendster. With these websites, adult can find more friends from the same city, the same country or from the other countries in the world.

Besides finding friends, user can also enjoyed online games, so user especially for children like stay at home and play online games, than they must go out.

Generally, there are many advantages that is got if someone have Internet access. 1.  Information for individual life: health, recreation, hobby, individual development, spiritual, social. 2. Information for professional life: science, technology, trading, share, commodity, business news, profession association, business association, some communication forum.

To increase the quality of human resources in Indonesian, the Indonesian professional uses internet network and become part of world information society.

Definitely, cannot be ignored that Internet technology gives the negative effect that does not lose with its benefits. The internet makes the crime using the computer media in an online manner with the risk be comprehended that is very small by the individual and the group with as a result of the bigger loss is good for the community and the country besides causing new crimes. The other effects are :

  1. Internet can create the lazy children to be active like the other children that are always active. The intensity of internet make the child always sits in front of his computer without disturbance. The child’s health can decrease too, because he is not active or does not move his body.
  1. Now, there are many international standard school and their students must bring their own laptop as studying medium in the school. But, there are many students that abuse their laptop. Sometimes, if the teacher is explaining the lesson in front of the class, the students don not pay attention their teacher, but they play internet freely because their teacher seldom investigate. It can be a bad habit for them.
  1. The ease of internet access facilities everyone to look for a lot of information that is wanted, and the information is got easily. It is not amazed if there are people that interest to open the sites that smell pornography, specially for adolescent because adolescent period is puberty period and they want to know more about everything. And perhaps, they can practice the bad information.
  1. With internet, someone can do theft. For example, a hacker can enter the “perbankan” network system to steal the customer information in the server about base data of the bank bill, because with network e-banking can be said opened and can be access by everyone. Although data theft that is done can not be proofed because there is not data that is lost but can be known it is accessed illegally from system that is walked.
  1. The children that play in the illusion world any time can give bad effect. The child will lack socialization with environment directly, but he/she only socializes in thee illusion world. It can be called “low intercourse”. Because of it, perhaps, he/she does not get more friends in the real world.
  1. The number of violence case to the child in our country increases. Moreover, from the violence cases is in worried standard. Not only in the real world, the violences are also from the illusion world (internet).
  1. Someone as an internet addict wants to access internet any time. This is very dangerous if the addict is a student, because it can disturb their studying time. For example, at six a.m. is time to study, but because he/she plays internet, he/she can study at 7 a.m., so the studying time for an hours is thrown away. If it happens again, the bad effect that happen is the student does not have studying time, but it is changed become time to internet accessing.
  1. With internet, someone can damage the good name from the other person. For example, someone has an artist photo that wear respectful cloth, but because he/she hate the artist, he/she changes the photo as if the artist does not wear cloth. The other internet user that find that photo considers that it is original photo, so they are not sympathetic again with the artist because she is brave to show the photo that smell pornography to internet user in the world, whereas the photo have been changed by the other person.
  1. Internet also threaten our health like damage our eyes, the muscles become tight, back, foot, hand, wrist, and waist become painful. These are caused because we are in front of computer in a long time.
  1. Life pattern becomes more individualistic. Now, people feel prestige if they do not access internet, whereas they do not need the information. Because exploring internet is very interesting, people like play game or do the chatting that spend much money, only to look for fun.
  1. Increasing the consumerism. People do online shopping with internet.

If they often access internet and visit commercial webs, so there are a lot of things that can be saw and then they interest to buy it. With credit card, all become easier and this is potent combination to scatter much money.

12.       The monitor radiation. Eye is the easiest body organ that can experience illness from work, because it always focus the eyeball to the monitor. The monitor screen appearance that is bright with hot colour like red, yellow, purple, orange will increase the fatigue to the eyes. Besides it, the light reflection on the monitor screen that come from the other source like window, lamp and the others, will increase the eye burden. The office illumination can cause the eye burden. Based on the result of the research, 77% the user of monitor screen will experience the complaint to the eye, from stiff and painful feeling to the eyes, red eye, the eyes are juicy, until the irritation of the eyes, and also eyes cataracts.

Prevention is better than curing. If internet has negative effect, so we must do preventions in order we do not enter in the effect.

1.                 From the first case, we can look for a lot of knowledges from internet, but we do not avoid from the real world that give us knowledge too. Socialization with environment is important. With it, we can know a lot of people, specially because we are social creature that always need the other person to pass this life.

2.       From the second case, actually, a teacher teaches and explains the lesson to the student. But attention to the student is also needed in order to the teacher can know the characteristic of each student and can investigate the student’s behaviour. If a student does a wrong behaviour, it is better if the teacher advices so the student does not do it again, because a teacher also become parent of the student in the school.

3.       The third case, puberty period is period that need high attention and investigation from the closer person specially from parent. With attention and guidance, we can lead them to the right way.

4.       From the forth case, this case is hard to do the prevention, because the thief is difficult to be detection. We only can give more security. So, the government must anticipate the technology criminal, and prepare the apparatus of police that finish the cyber crime or the criminal in the illusion world. The polices are also upgraded, so they can face the technology criminal.

5.       The fifth case, a child that has low intercourse arouses inferior feeling. So, the child will be difficult to associate with new friends because he/she is shy. Parents won’t their child have not friend, only sits in front of computer, and plays with internet. So, if we have friend like that, perhaps, we can invite he/she to go from house and introduce him/her to the other friends. After he/she feels comfort, he/she will forget with internet.

6.       The sixth case can be said the terrible case because it causes violence. We must know that violence is bad thing, and it can increase our sins. For parent, they must pay attention their children every time, because especially for children, they can imitate the violence.

7.       From the seventh case, it is right if there must special internet access, in order to don not disturb the studying time. So the child is more concentration to study and his/her achievement in the school does not decrease but it will increase.

8.       The eighth case, as human, we are free to spend out our opinion and our expression, but we also need regulation in order to our freedom does not damage the other person and our selves. So another person will feel comfort with us.

9.       The ninth case, the limitation of internet access is needed, in order to our eyes and our body are not tired. Perhaps, every an hours, we can take a rest, our body become fresh and our computer is not hot, so our body is healthy and the computer is too.

10.     The tenth case, internet is not everything. We must not be shy if we do not access internet any time. Because there are many useful activity besides internet accessing and do not spend much money. We can make busy day, in order to we do not interest with internet.

11.      From the eleventh case, especially for woman, you must arrange our expenditure and study to live economically.

12.     The last case, the prevention likes the ninth case. We must take a rest after we work with internet or computer. So it can decrease the radiation to our eyes.

We can start the prevention from our self. Certainly, faith and piety can avoid us in order that we do not try the negative matters. Besides that, we can distinguish the benefit and the effect of internet. We must have the limitation of internet access, so we have time to do the other activity. It is difficult to do that if we have loved internet, but with the strong intention, we can repair the condition.

If this method is successful, the nation level will increase because our nation can use internet well, and get a lot of useful matter from internet for human resource improvement. Besides that, it is also useful for each user as provision in the future.

Do not forget for the parents, they also can do the prevention to their children, like :

  1. Parent role as partner is needed. You must have opinion that negative sites (pornography / violence) is forbidden matter, so computer application must open and the parents can see.
  2. Take computer in the living room, so child activity when access internet can be supervised. (it is better if the computer do not be took in the child’s bedroom).
  3. Determine online time together. Parents and children sit in front of computer, and discuss about the information from Internet.
  4. The limitation of browsing time. Child must be discipline to obey the time boundary for using internet. Avoid your child sit in front of computer until late at night.
  5. Tell the positive and negative side to the children clearly. Explain, internet is practice and unlimited information media.
  6. Give the practice tips to avoid the sides that want to take benefit from internet user. For example, doesn’t give individual data, doesn’t give telephone number and address, and doesn’t give photo to anyone.
  7. Use the local internet protection software. This step is easy and efficient step to avoid the child from internet negative influence. This protection service will filter all of information or picture from your child’s computer screen.
  8. If the child shows strange behaviour, discuss with her/him. Investigate, the reason is internet or not.
  9. Explain to your child that besides we access internet every time, we must have socialization with our environment.
  10. If your child is enjoyed internet or games, discuss with specialist. They know how to make your child’s life is not always in front of computer.

Not only we that must do the negative effect prevention, but the government must do too, so that their people do not fall in bad or negative information. One of method that can be done is give information about Internet to society, and explain all of negative and positive effect.  With the conviction and the determination that are strong to make the people prosperous, possibly the efforts can be successful appropriate like that is hoped for. The government must close the pornosites because Indonesia occupies the sixth level in the world in accessing the pornosites. And Indonesia is in the second level after Ukraina in the internet abusing.

Internet gives positive effect and also negative effect for us. With our ability to select, use the internet well and find the positive effect. And also with the other information and communication technology, for example:  television, hand phone, satellite, and the other communication product. We are young generation of our country. We must be ready with the technology development, but we also must use it well.

Finally, we may use internet, because the internet has many benefits but we do not forget because the internet also has bad effects if we can not use the internet service well. Get the benefits and your life becomes better.
AN

 

Ringkasan Biologi

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 11:52 pm

PROTIST

Protist Characteristics :

  • Eukaryotic organisms
  • Either unicellular or multicellular

Protists Are Grouped Into :

  • Animal – like Protist
  • Plant – like Protist
  • Fungus – like Protist

ANIMAL LIKE – PROTIST

  • They are more usually called Protozoa
  • Their characteristics are :

1. Unicellular and heterotrophic : they prey on bacteria, other protists and organic waste

2. Microscopic in size, around 10 to 200 microns

3. Their cell shape is variable : some are fixed while others are changeable

(berubah-ubah)

4. Protozoan have motion appendage, such as pseudopodia (fake foot), cilia (soft

hair), or flagella (whip – hair)

5. Protozoa are composed of a cell membrane, cytoplasm, food vacuole,   contractile, vacuole, and nucleus

-Membrane acts as a protective barrier and regulates food and gas exchange

-The function of food vacuole is digesting food

-The contractive vacuole is a pump that excretes liquid food remains out of the

cell by controlling water content

-The nucleus function is to control the cell metabolic activity

  • Protozoans are solitary or form colonies
  • Habitat :

– Live freely in oceans or fresh water, ponds or rivers

– Live inside the soil, live symbiotically inside the bodies of animals or humans

  • Reproduction :

– Asexually by binary fission

– Sexually by the union of vegetative nuclear is called conjugation

  • Classification :

Animal – like protists are classified into 4 groups, based on their method of  motility :

1. Rhizopoda (Sarcodina), which move with pseudopodia (fake foot)

2. Ciliata , which move with cilia

3. Flagellata , which move with flagella

4. Sporozoa , which have no motility tool

RHIZOPODA ( SARCODINA)

  • This pseudopod allows the rhizopod to move and be able to prey

upon other organisms

  • Cytoplasm : Ectoplasm and Endoplasm

Ectoplasm is the outer-most part of the cytoplasm that is bordered by the cell  membrane, while endoplasm is the inner part.

Ectoplasm has low viscosity compared to endoplasm.

  • During feeding, a pseudopod surround they prey and forms a food vacuole. They prey is then digested inside this vacuole. Digestion products enter the cytoplasm by diffusion and by-products will be excreted through the cell membrane
  • Reproduce asexually by binary fission
  • In unfavorable condition, rhizopod can adapt by forming cysts and grow again when the environment is back to optimum condition
  • Mostly free-living in damp soil, seawater or freshwater
  • Heterotrophic rhizopods prey on unicellular algae, bacteria or other protozoa.
  • Example of Rhizopods :

a. Amoeba proteus lives freely in soil

b. Difflugia lives in freshwater regions

c. Foraminifera and Gobligerina lives in seawater

(kerangka tubuh tersusun dari zat kapur)

d. Entamoeba hystolytica that cause dysentery diseases

e. Entamoeba gingivalis that cause gumtooth problems

f. Radiolaria and Spaerostylus

CILIATA

  • Cilia found on the surface of the cell or just on particular parts
  • Besides movement, cilia also help to collect food
  • They have 2 nucleuses, a macronucleus and a micronucleus

The macronucleus has a vegetative function : growth and cell division

The micronucleus has a reproductive function in conjugation

  • Ciliates have trichocysts to defense against enemies or predators
  • Ciliates live freely in marine and freshwater, live symbiotically or parasitically inside other organisms.
  • Ciliates reproduce :

– Asexually by transversal binary fission

– Sexually by conjugation

  • Examples of ciliates :

a. Paramecium caudatum

b. Didinium : as predator of paramecium

c. Stentor form of the body is like trumpet

d. Vorticella form of the body is like bell

e. Stylonichia form of the body is oval

f. Balantidium coli, lives in cattle or human colons and causes

diarrhea (Balantidiosis)

FLAGELLATA

  • Move by means of a flagellum or whip-tail
  • Most flagellates have two flagella

The location of the flagellum can be posterior (behind) or anterior (front)

  • Flagellates reproduce asexually by transversal binary fission as in Tryponosoma
  • They live freely in marine and freshwater and symbiotically or parasitically inside the bodies of animals
  • Cell membrane is called a pellicle
  • Examples of Flagellata (Mastigophora) :

a. Trichonympha companula : live inside the intestines of termites

(rayap) and wood cockroaches (kecoa kayu). It helps to digest wooden.

b. Trypanosoma brucei, the causes of human sleeping sickness in Africa

Trypanosoma brucei-gambiense is carried by the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans

Trypanosoma brucei-rhodesiense is carried by the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis

Trypanosoma brucei destroys the central nervous system and bood veins

c. Trypanosoma evansi, the causes of animal surra disease

d. Trichomonas vaginalis, the cause of human genital tract disease

e. Leishmania donovani, the cause of kala-Azar disease that destroys human blood cells

f. Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of chagas disease, the hospes is child

SPOROZOA

  • Sporozoa doesn’t have a motility structure
  • All species of sporozoa are parasitic in humans or animals
  • Sporozoa reproduces :

– Asexually by binary fission

– Sexually by fertilization of male and female gametes

  • They live parasitically inside the bodies of animals and humans
  • Examples of Protozoa :

a. Toxoplasma gondii that causes toxoplasmosis

T. gondii enters human body through contaminated food such as meat infected with   toxoplasma cysts that comes from cat feces

b. Plasmodium that causes malaria disease

Plasmodium enters human bodies by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. Inside the body, plasmodium attacks liver cells and red blood cells (erythrocytes)

  • There are 4 species of Plasmodium :

1. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria tropika / tropikana

Phase sporulation : 1 X 24 hours

2. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale causes malaria tertiana

Phase sporulation : 2 X 24 hours

3. Plasmodium malariae causes malaria kuartana

Phase sporulation : 3 X 24 hours

  • Efforts to eradicate malaria have focused on :

1. The elimination of the mosquito vectors

with the way of preventing water pools for forming or closing

water containers

2. The development of drugs to poison the parasites once they

have entered the human body

For example : Quinine tablets

3. The development of vaccines

  • Roles of Protozoa in human life :

Protozoa can be both beneficial and detrimental to human

  • Benefit of Protozoa :

– Protozoa important roles in controlling the population

of bacteria in the wild

– In aquatic regions, protozoa as zooplankton and benthos

are food sources for aquatic animals which are

economically important to humans

– Foraminifera, their shells and skeletons can be guides

to find oil, natural gas, and mineral resources

– Radiolaria, exoskeleton made of silica (zat kersik) and

can be used as polisher material (bahan penggosok)

– Entamoeba coli, help to decompose food waste

  • Detriment of Protozoa :

– Entamoeba histolytica, the cause of dysentery

– Trypanosoma brucei, the cause of African sleeping

sickness

– Trypanosoma evansi, the cause of cattle surra disease

It is carried by Tabanus fly

– Leishmania donovani, the cause of kala-Azar disease

It is carried by Pholobotomus mosquito

– Trichomonas vaginalis, a human genital tract parasite

– Balantidium coli, the cause of diarrhea

– Toxoplasma gondii, the cause of toxoplasmosis

– Plasmodium, the cause of malaria

PLANT LIKE – PROTIST

  • Plant – like protists are all algae
  • Body characteristics :

ü      Algae are range in size, from the invisible (microscopic) to the visible (macroscopic).

ü      There are unicellular and multicellular.

ü      Unicellular algae can live alone or in colonies.

Some species of unicellular algae have flagellum for motion.

Usually there are 2 to 4 flagella at the tip of the cell.

Solitary unicellular algae there are round, oval, or pear-shaped.

The colony is shaped like a disc in Gonium, a ball in volvox or

net in Hydrodictyon.

  • Multicellular algae have the form of thread and sheet-like.

Oedogonium and Spirogyra have filament-shaped bodies, while Laminaria, Ulva and    Macrocystis have a sheet form.

  • The sheet-like algae have simple forms and thereby do not develop true leaves, stems, or roots.

Structure like that are called thallus.

Hence algae are classified as Thallophyta.

  • All algae are eukaryotic.
  • Algae has chloroplasts. A chloroplast is an organelle that contains pigment responsible for photosynthesis.

There are different forms of chloroplasts in algae :

  • Spherical in Chroococcum
  • Bowl-shaped in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas
  • Belt-shaped in Ulothrix
  • Disk-shaped in Vaucheria and Chara
  • Net-like shaped in Oedogonium
  • Spiral shaped in Spirogyra
  • The pigments in chloroplast capture energy from sunlight to be used in photosynthesis.
  • The main pigment of photosynthesis is chlorophyll (green pigment)
  • Some kinds of pigment that are had algae include :

v     Chlorophyll : a, b, c, d.

Chlorophyll a (hijau kebiruan)

Chlorophyll b (hijau kekuningan)

Chlorophyll c (hijau kecoklatan)

Chlorophyll d (hijau kemerahan)

v     Carotene    : Xanthophylls (golden pigment)

Fucoxanthin (brownish pigment)

v     Phycobilin  : Phycocyanin (bluish pigment)

Phycoerythrin (reddish pigment)

  • Algae have a structure within their chloroplast which is called a pyrenoid. It function is as the algal food storage container.
  • The types of stored food, include :

v     Amylum and oil (green algae)

v     Leucosin and oil (golden algae)

v     Laminarin (brown algae)

v     Florid starch (red algae)

  • Life cycle and Habitat :
    • Phototrophic organisms

Algae are capable of photosynthesis which means making their own food from  inorganic materials using energy from the sun.

  • Algae live freely in aquatic or damp habitat.
  • In their habitats, algae act as producers that provide food and oxygen for heterotrophic organisms.
  • Reproduction :
    • Algae reproduce asexually and sexually.
    • Asexual reproduction :

a.  Binary fission

Occurs only in unicellular algae. A mother cell devides into two to form two     identical daughter cells.

Example : Euglena and Chlorella

b.  Fragmentation

Occurs in multicellular filamentous and thallus algae. Broken filament or

thallus can grow into new individual organism.

Example : Spirogyra, Laminaria, and Sargassum

c.  Spore formation

Occurs in unicellular or multicellular algae.

Spores are formed by division of mother cell’s wall. Spores will be released after

cell wall breaks and grow into haploid new algae.

Example : Chlamydomonas and Ulothrix

  • The thallus type undergo metagenesis
  • Metagenesis occurs between a spore-forming generation (vegetative /sporophyte) and a gamet-forming generation (generative /gametophyte). Example : Ulva and Chlamydomonas
  • Sexual reproduction :

ü      In unicellular and filamentous algae

Sexual reproduction occurs by the union of two different types of gametes and     results of a zygote.

The zygote forms thick-walled zygospore. The zygospore devides into 4 flagellated  haploid daughter cells called zoospores, which are released when the zygospore’s wall ruptures and grow into haploid algae called vegetative cells.

ü      In thallus algae

Sexual reproduction occurs by the union of two different types of gametes and results of a zygote.

Gametes are produced by gametangium. Gametangium is produced by the gametophyte (generative algae).

Gametangium that produces egg cells (ovum) are called Oogonium.

Gametangium that produces spermatozoids are called Antheridium .

The zygote grows into new diploid organism called a sporophyte.

  • Algae sexually reproduction is divided into :
  1. Isogamy, which is the union of 2 different gamete types with the same shape and size.
  2. Anisogamy, which is the union of 2 different gemete types with the same shape but different size.
  3. Oogamy, which is the union of 2 gametes with different shape and size.
  • Algae Classification

Some biologists classify algae based on their dominant pigment, components of cell wall, number and position of flagella and the type of stored food.

These criteria separate algae into 6 groups, include :

      1. Euglenoid (Euglenophyta)
      2. Chrysophyta
      3. Pyrrophyta
      4. Chlorophyta
      5. Phaeophyta
      6. Rhodophyta

l      EUGLENOID ( EUGLENOPHYTA )

ü      Euglenoids have disc-shaped eye spot that contains photoreceptors covered by a layer of red pigment.

The presence of this red pigment layer results in the ability of euglenoid to detect and move toward light.

ü      Euglenoid is a unicellular organism that lacks a cell wall.

ü      The cell is covered by an elastic protein called pellicle.

ü      Euglenoid have been identified as photosynthetic organisms.

However, there are heterotrophic Euglenoid as well.

ü      Photosynthetic euglenoids have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll a, band carotene.

ü      The photosynthetic product is stored as a backup in the form of paramylon ( a type of starch)

ü      Generally, it has 2 flagella, one is long and the other one is short.

The long flagellum is used for movement.

ü      Live in freshwater such as ponds or lakes.

ü      Reproduction is done asexually by binary fission.

Example : Euglena

  • CHRYSOPHYTA ( GOLDEN ALGAE )
    • Golden algae have some pigments :

Xantophyll (a dominant pigment), chlorophyll a and c, fucoxanthin

  • Body shape :

– Solitary unicellular algae = Ochromonas

– Colony and lacking flagella

– Multicellular = Vaucheria

  • The cell wall contains hemicellulose, silica and pectin.
  • Food in golden algae is stored as fats and carbohydrates.
  • Diatoms, such as Navicula, have shell-like cell wall composed of the base-valve (hypotheca) and the lid-valve (epitheca).
  • Live in freshwater and in the sea.
  • Reproduction :

– Asexually by binary fission or spore formation.

– Sexually by uniting 2 types of gametes.

  • Examples of chrysophyta are Navicula, Synura, and Mischococcus
  • FIRE ALGAE ( PYRROPHYTA / DINOFLAGELLATA)

ü      Some species living in the sea appear fluorescent at night.

ü      Some other species are blooming at certain times of the year (seasonal) and cause the appearance of red tides along the seashore.

ü      Some species of fire algae can cause a toxic red tide that kills fish and sea animals.

ü      People who consumed the toxic seafood may experience brain damage.

ü      Fire algae have different kinds of colors : yellowish-green, green, blue, brown or red.

ü      Generally have pigments are chlorophyll a and c, xantophyll, dinoxanthin, and phycobilin.

ü      Mostly unicellular, photosynthetic organisms.

ü      Cell wall consist of cellulos.

ü      They usually have 2 flagella positioned laterally at the side or apical (at the tip) of the cell.

ü      Live in the sea as the major sea phytoplankton

ü      They reproduce asexually by binary fission.

– Gymnodinium breve that produces brevetoxin (nerve toxin)

– Gambierdiscus toxicus that produces ciguatoxin

– Gonyaulax that produces saxitoxin

– Noctiluca scintillans that produces fluorescent substance

  • GREEN ALGAE ( CHLOROPHYTA )
    • Green algae have pigment : chlorophyll a and b, carotene.

Dominant pigment : chlorophyll a and b.

  • Unicellular and multicellular
  • Some unicellular green algae have flagella
  • Cell wall composed of cellulose
  • Store food as amylum
  • Live in freshwater such as ponds, puddles, or other damp places.

Live in seawater, example : ulva

  • Reproduction :

Asexually by binary fission, spore formation, and fregmentation.

Sexually by isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy.

  • Examples : Chlorella, Chroococcum, Chlamidomonas, Volvox, Gonium, Hydrodictyom, Ulothrix, Spirogyra, Oedogonium, Ulva, Halimeda, and Acetabularia.

  • BROWN ALGAE ( PHAEOPHYTA )

ü      Brown algae have pigment carotene, i.e. fucoxanthin.

The other pigments are chlorophyll a and c, and xantophyll.

ü      Most of the members are filamentous or thallus multicellular algae.

ü      Cell wall contain pectin or algin.

ü      Food is stored as laminarin (a form of glucose or fat).

ü      Live in seawater, shore and tidal region.

ü      Reproduction :

Asexually by fragmentation and zoospores.

Sexually by isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy.

ü      Brown algae experience alteration of gametophyte and sporophyte generation or metagenesis.

ü      Examples : Sargassum, Laminaria, Turbinaria, Facus Vesiculosus Macrocystis, Nereocystis, Harmosira.

ü      Macrocystis and Nereosystis are giant algae that can reach length of 50 meters.

  • RED ALGAE ( RHODOPHYTA )

ü      Red algae have pigments : phycoerithrin, chlorophyll a and d, carotene, and phycocyanin.

Dominant pigment : phycobilin i.e. phycoerithrin.

ü      Most of them are filamentous or sheet-shape multicellular.

ü      The cell wall contains cellulose and pectin.

ü      Food is stored as floridean starch.

ü      Live in deep sea.

ü      Reproduction :

Asexually by forming spores.

Sexually by oogamy.

ü      Red algae undergo alteration of gametophyte and sporophyte generations (metagenesis)

ü      Examples :

Eucheuma spinosum, Gelidium robustum, Chondrus crsipus, Gigartina mammilosa, Gracillaria verrucosa, Polysiphonia Sp.

  • Importance of Algae for human :
    • Chlorella as source of highly nutritious food supplement.
    • Ulva, Caulerpa, and Enteromorpha as vegetables.
    • Eucheuma and Gelidium to produce gelatin for the food industry (making pudding)
    • Golden algae, i.e. remains of Diatom shell that can be used to explosive mixtures, construction cement, scrubber, isalator material, and colander / sieve production.
    • Laminaria laveniea as high potassium agricultural fertilizer.
    • Laminaria digitalis as a source of iodine (good for treating goiter).
    • Macrocystis and Laminaria as alginate acid producer used as a thickening agent in food industries such as ice cream, adhesive in plastic industry, cosmetics and textile production.
 

Story

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 11:51 pm

TWO FROG

Once upon a time,,,,,,,,,

There were two frogs living in two different places in Japan. The first frog lived in a moat of Osaka city. While the second frog lived at a small river in Kyoto city. But, they had same want. Osaka Frog wanted to go to Kyoto, while Kyoto frog wanted to go to Osaka.

In the spring morning, both frogs started to go to each destination. They passed the road that connected Osaka with Kyoto. In the middle trip, they had to climb a high mountain. When they arrived to mountain peak, they met each other. Then, both frogs talked and told the reason of their meeting.

“Poor us! We have small body, right??” said Osaka frog. “If we have big body, we can see both cities from here.”

“We can do it by standing with our back foots, and we hold each other so we can see both cities,” replied Kyoto frog.

Then, they woke up. They tightened their body and hold each other. So they would not fall. Kyoto frog targeted its nose to Osaka city, while Osaka frog targeted its nose to Kyoto city. But they forgot that their big eyes were on back part of head. Although their noses targeted to the destination, but their eyes saw to each origin cities.

“Oh my God!!” the Osaka frog was surprised. “Kyoto is same with Osaka. My trip is in vain. I will go back.”

Kyoto frog also felt disappointed, “If I know earlier that Osaka is the imitation of Kyoto, I would not go.”

After that, both frogs decided to go home and said good bye. It was funny, until the end of their lifes , they still believed that Osaka and Kyoto were two same cities.

Source: BOBO magazine

 

Example of Spoofs

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 11:49 pm

Chiaaat….CRRACKK!

I’m a member of a martial art organization at school. one day, our organization arranged a martial art demonstrasion for student to persuade them into joining our organization. I was chosen as one of the permormers to perforn some of the martial art movement. during my performance, when I was doing a high kick,suddenly I heard a loud sound, “CRRACKK!!!” Oh my god ! my pants were torn apart at the buttock. Everyone laughed at me. I could only stand there with a blood red face. next thing I knew, I was running toward the toilet. Never again will I perform those movement in front of an audience.

SAFETY FIRST

One day after class, there was a safety drill at my school- a technology vocational school. the instructor showed the importance of wearing safety gear on a building site, such as a helmet, safety shoes, and gloves. he also mentioned that we must always put on our seatbelt in a car. then we all were given chance to try on those safety gadgets.
when the drill was over, my friends and I walked to the car of one of my friends. We always go home together because we live in the same housing complex.
I sat in the front seat, Next to the Driver. I buckled the seatbelt, and I turned my head facing my friends in the back.
“Don’t forget to buckle up, guys! Don’t forget, safety first!” to my surprise, their exploded into laughter.
“Hey, come on guys. You know that that I’m right,” I said to defend myself.
“Yeah, yeah. You’re right. but you don’t have to wear a helmet in a car.!”
My gosh! I forgot to take off the helmet I had beeb wearing. I opened the car door and ran to return the helmet. With a red face, of course.
Ever since, my friends have teased me with the words: safety first.

Safety First

One day after class, there was a safety drill at my school – a technology vocational school. The instructor showed the importance of wearing safety gear on a building site, such as a helmet, safety shoes, and gloves. He also mentioned that we must always put on our seatbelt in a car. Then we all were given a chance to try on those safety gadgets.

When the drill was over, my friends and I walked to the car of one of my friends. We always go home together because we live in the same housing complex. I sat in the front seat, next to the driver. I buckled the seatbelt, and I turned my head facing my friends in the back.

“ Don’t forget to buckle up, guys! Don’t forget, safety first!”
to my surprise, their exploded into laughter.
“ Hey, come on, guys. You know that I’m right, “ I said to defend myself.
“ Yeah, yeah. You’re right. But you don’t have to wear a helmet in a car!”

My gosh! I forgot to take off the helmet I had been wearing. I opened the car door and ran to return the helmet. With a red face, of course.
Ever since, my friends have teased me with the words.

 

Resep Miloreng (Mie Telor Goreng)

Filed under: Uncategorized — dnbk @ 11:47 pm
  1. 1. MILORENG

Bahan     :    Mie instant godog    6 bungkus

Minyak goreng         1 ltr

Telur                        6 butir

Sosis                        secukupnya

Saus sambal             secukupnya

Cara       :

  • Rebus mie instant tanpa menggunakan bumbunya,
  • Selagi menunggu mie matang, bersihkan loncang dan potong pendek.
  • Potong juga sosis sesuai selera.
  • Campurkan potongan locang, sosis, bumbu mie dan telur, aduk hingga rata.
  • Setelah mie matang, tiriskan kemudian campur dengan campuran bumbu, telur, sosis dan loncang. Aduk hingga merata.
  • Panaskan minyak goreng diatas wajan.
  • Goreng mie seperti menggoreng bakpia.
  • Setelah berwarna kecoklatan, angkat dan tiriskan.
  • Mieloreng siap disajikan.

Ukuran   :     20 buah